By Daviken Studnicki-Gizbert
With the outlet of sea routes within the 15th century, teams of fellows and girls left Portugal to set up themselves around the ports and towns of the Atlantic or Ocean sea. They have been refugees and migrants, investors and mariners, Jews , Catholics, and the Marranos of combined Judaic-Catholic tradition. They shaped a diasporic neighborhood recognized by way of contemporaries because the Portuguese kingdom. via the early 17th century, this state with out a country had created a notable buying and selling community that spanned the Atlantic, reached into the Indian Ocean and Asia, and generated hundreds of thousands of pesos that have been used to bankroll the Spanish empire. A state Upon the sea Sea strains the tale of the Portuguese state from its emergence within the overdue 15th century to its fragmentation in the course of the 17th and situates it on the subject of the parallel enlargement and hindrance of Spanish imperial dominion within the Atlantic. opposed to the backdrop of this courting, the publication reconstitutes the wealthy internal lifetime of a group in keeping with circulation, maritime exchange, and cultural hybridity. we're brought to mariners and investors in such disparate locations as Lima, Seville and Amsterdam, their daily interactions and understandings, their homes and family kinfolk, their inner most reflections and public arguments. This finaly-textured account unearths how the Portuguese country created a cohesive and significant group regardless of the mobility and dispersion of its participants; how its kinds of sociability fed into the improvement of strong transatlantic advertisement networks; and the way the day by day event of alternate was once translated into the field of Spanish imperial politics of industrial reform in response to religious-ethnic toleration and the liberalization of alternate. A microhistory, A state Upon the sea Sea contributes to our knowing of the wider histories of capitalism, empire, and diaspora within the early Atlantic.
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Extra info for A Nation upon the Ocean Sea: Portugal's Atlantic Diaspora and the Crisis of the Spanish Empire, 1492-1640
The rest were sheltered as best could be managed by their coreligionists. 20 The Christian community, pace the acts of individual charity, viewed these events with growing alarm and rising intolerance. The inﬂow of seaborne refugees came to an abrupt halt in the winter of 1493 as a long set of severe Atlantic storms lashed the coast of Portugal. The storms had already sent twenty-ﬁve ships of the Flanders ﬂeet to the bottom of the sea. Portuguese Nation and Spanish Empire 23 The remainder of Lisbon’s ships had been pinned to harbor for months.
82 For the Portuguese Nation, the second half of the sixteenth century was a period of accelerated development in the Atlantic economy, resulting in a displacement of the center of the Nation’s energies from the Asian trades to the Atlantic. 83 The reorientation was discernible in the shifting positions of the merchant Portuguese Nation and Spanish Empire 35 houses involved in overseas trade. Blocked by elite houses from the more established trades between Asia and northern Europe, new, middling merchants sought their fortunes in the relatively open trades of the Atlantic: sugar, slaving, contraband.
Imperial ofﬁcials perceived Portuguese merchants in a less favorable light. They were contrabandists, interlopers, and foreigners. These characterizations were rooted in a deeper tension that set in opposition two collectivities (one dispersed, the other centralized), two forms of organizing economic exchanges (one transnational, the other contained), and two cultures (one hybridized, the other ostensibly pure). Even in the intellectual sphere, scholars of the empire sketched out an ethic of obligation that would regulate and channel unruly commercialism toward the higher ends of the commonwealth.
A Nation upon the Ocean Sea: Portugal's Atlantic Diaspora and the Crisis of the Spanish Empire, 1492-1640 by Daviken Studnicki-Gizbert