By Caroline Moorehead
They have been academics, scholars, chemists, writers, and housewives; a singer on the Paris Opera, a midwife, a dental health professional. They allotted anti-Nazi leaflets, revealed subversive newspapers, concealed resisters, secreted Jews to protection, transported guns, and conveyed clandestine messages. The youngest was once a schoolgirl of fifteen who scrawled "V" for victory at the partitions of her lycÉe; the eldest, a farmer's spouse in her sixties who harbored escaped Allied airmen. Strangers to one another, hailing from villages and towns from throughout France, those courageous ladies have been united in hatred and defiance in their Nazi occupiers.
finally, the Gestapo hunted down 230 of those ladies and imprisoned them in a fortress open air Paris. Separated from domestic and family, those disparate participants grew to become to each other, their universal adventure conquering divisions of age, schooling, career, and sophistication, as they discovered solace and power of their deep affection and camaraderie.
In January 1943, they have been despatched to their ultimate vacation spot: Auschwitz. in basic terms forty-nine could go back to France.
A teach in Winter attracts on interviews with those girls and their households; German, French, and varnish documents; and files held via international struggle II resistance corporations to discover a gloomy bankruptcy of historical past that provides an inspiring portrait of normal humans, of bravery and survival—and of the awesome, enduring strength of woman friendship.
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Extra info for A Train in Winter: An Extraordinary Story of Women, Friendship, and Resistance in Occupied France
Despite the dramatic German success in this first fantastic encirclement, there were vexing flaws in the German victory. Because the advancing Germans were not able to assemble forces necessary to seal off the encircled Red Army forces hermetically, large numbers of Red Army soldiers escaped, leaving their heavy equipment behind. Afraid that his panzer groups would advance too far too fast, Hitler ordered them to pause while his infantry eliminated the encirclement. This hesitation, in turn, prompted the first of many debates that would ensue in Germans command channels regarding how the campaign should be conducted.
The Composition and Commanders of Mechanized Corps Supporting the Western Front in July 1941 • 5th Mechanized Corps (13th and 17th Tank and 109th Motorized Divisions) – Major General of Tank Forces Il’ia Prokof’evich Alekseenko. • 7th Mechanized Corps (14th and 18th Tank and 1st Motorized Divisions) – Major General Vasilii Ivanovich Vinogradov • 17th Mechanized Corps (27th and 36th Tank and 209th Motorized Divisions) – Major General Mikhail Petrovich Petrov • 20th Mechanized Corps (26th and 38th Tank and 210th Motorized Divisions) – Major General Andrei Grigor’evich Nikitin and Major General of Tank Forces Nikolai Denisovich Vedeneev on 21 July 1941 • 23rd Mechanized Corps (48th and 51st Tank and 220th Motorized Divisions) – Major General Mikhail Akimovich Miasnikov • 25th Mechanized Corps (50th and 55th Tank and 219th Motorized Divisions) – Major General Semen Moiseevich Krivoshein • 26th Mechanized Corps (52nd and 56th Tank and 103rd Motorized Divisions) – Major General Nikolai Iakovlevich Kirichenko • 27th Mechanized Corps (9th and 53rd Tank and 221st Motorized Divisions) – Major General Ivan Efimovich Petrov Sources: Evgenii Drig, Mekhanizirovnnye korpusa RKK A v boiu: Istorii avtobronetankovykh voisk Krasnoi Armii v 1940-1941 godakh [The RKKA’s Mechanized Corps in Battle: A history of the auto-armored forces of the Red Army in 1940-1941] (Moscow: Transkniga, 2005), and Il’ia Moshchansky and Ivan Khokhlov, “Protivostoianie: Smolenskoe srazhenie, 10 iiulia-10 sentiabria 1941 goda, chast’ 1” [Confrontation: the Battle of Smolensk, 10 July-10 September 1941, part 1], in Voennaia letopis’ [Military chronicle], 3, 2003, 4-7.
Chapter 2 Army Group Center’s Advance to the Western Dvina and Dnepr Rivers and the Western Front’s Counterstroke at Lepel’, 2–9 July 1941 German Command Decisions By design, Operation Barbarossa was to be a Blitzkrieg campaign modeled after the Wehrmacht’s previous lightning campaigns in Poland, France, and the Balkans. Specifically, the campaign’s duration was to be measured in a time span of weeks, during which the OKH expected the German Army to achieve a, by now, familiar series of double-envelopment encirclements to annihilate the defending Red Army forces before they could withdraw further into the interior and reorganize their defenses.
A Train in Winter: An Extraordinary Story of Women, Friendship, and Resistance in Occupied France by Caroline Moorehead