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By Edwin H. Spanier

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Resistant to corrosion and heat; used as a refractory in high-temperature applications and as a strength-producing ingredient in stoneware and porcelain. Octahedral site: The void space among close-packed hard-sphere atoms or ions for which there are six nearest neighbors. An octahedron (double pyramid) is circumscribed by lines constructed from centers of adjacent spheres. Open pores: The pores of a solid body that may be penetrated by a liquid or gaseous substance outside the external surface of the body.

This kind of wear can be minimized if the surfaces are smooth and hard particles are kept off the sliding surfaces (a small number of hard particles also come off from the hard surfaces). This type of wear is the most important process in implant materials and can be analyzed more easily than any other type of wear mentioned previously. 35) where K is the wear constant. 7 gives some wear constants for various sliding combinations. When lubrication is present between two contacting surfaces, the friction and wear properties change drastically.

15) Therefore, 1/ 2  2 E J ¬­ V f  žž žŸ Sc ®­­ 1/ 2  EJ ¬ x žž ­­ . 16) It is noted that one has to double the energy under the stress–strain curve for brittle materials to come to a conclusion similar to that of Eq. 10). 17) where U is the crack tip radius. The crack will propagate if Vm p Vth . 18) Orowan [16] noted that the minimum radius of curvature at the crack tip is of the same order of magnitude as the interatomic spacing, a0. If U in Eq. 17) can be replaced by a0, then 1/ 2  EJ ¬ V f  žž ­­­ .

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Algebraic Topology by Edwin H. Spanier

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